E-Cigarette Studies & Research
Although the original concept can be traced back to 1963, Hon Lik, a Chinese pharmacist, is widely credited with inventing the first electronic cigarette in 2003. Internationally patented in 2007, studies regarding the safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes are ongoing. Below, we have attempted to gather the most complete, unbiased and accurate e-cigarette research available:
Positive Electronic Cigarette Studies
Studies of Toxicity Levels:
- 2013 Tobacco Control Study – Substituting tobacco cigarettes with e-cigarettes may substantially reduce exposure to selected tobacco-specific toxicants.
- 2013 Drexel University Study – Chemicals found in e-cigarette liquids pose no health concerns.
- 2013 ClearStream-LIFE Study – Study indicated that electronic cigarette vapor is significantly less cytotoxic than cigarette / tobacco smoke.
- 2012 Indoor Air Study – Compared electronic cigarette vapor to tobacco smoke and found significantly less volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
- 2010 Journal of Public Health Study – Lab studies showed that carcinogen levels in e-cigarettes are much lower than traditional cigarettes.
Studies of Second-Hand Vapor:
- 2014 Drexel University Study – Found “no apparent concern” for bystanders exposed to e-cigarette vapor – even under “worst case” assumptions.
- 2013 Oxford University Press Study – Using an e-cig in indoor environments may expose nonusers to trace amounts of nicotine but not to toxic combustion products.
- 2012 CleanStream-Air Study – Evaluated the effect of second-hand vapor and found no detectable amounts of toxic substances or carcinogens.
- 2012 Inhalation Toxicology Study – Determined there was no apparent risk to human health from electronic cigarette vapor emissions.
Effectiveness for Smoking Cessation:
- 2014 Addiction Journal Study - Among smokers attempting to quit, those who used e-cigs were more likely to report abstinence than those using NRT or no aid.
- 2013 Addictive Behaviors Study – E-cigarettes may contribute to relapse prevention in former smokers and smoking cessation in current smokers.
- 2013 Lancent Medical Journal Study – Determined that e-cigarettes were modestly effective at helping smokers to quit, equivalent to nicotine patches.
- 2013 PLoS ONE Study – E-cigarettes decreased cigarette consumption and elicited enduring tobacco abstinence without causing significant side effects.
- 2012 Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco – E-cigs deliver similar levels of nicotine and reduce exposure to combustion toxicants after switching from tobacco.
- 2011 Boston University Study – Electronic cigarette use significantly reduced tobacco cravings, a similar effect to what has been observed with nicotine inhalers.
- 2011 BioMed Central Public Health Study – Concluded that smokers substantially decreased their cigarette consumption (without significant side effects) with e-cigs.
- 2010 Tobacco Control Study – Found that e-cigarettes alleviated users desire to smoke and had a ‘pharmacokinetic profile’ more like the Nicorette inhalator than tobacco.
Other E-Cigarette Health Studies:
- 2014 IJERP Health Survey - Survey of over 19,000 e-cigarette users found that nearly 75% reported better general health after switching to e-cigs, along with a wide range of other perceived health benefits, such as improve endurance, breathing, taste, smell, etc.
- 2013 Inhalation Toxicology Study – While lung function was impaired by traditional cigarettes, e-cigs appeared to have no impact and delivered similar levels of nicotine.
- 2012 Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center Study – Based on current available data, electronic cigarettes appear to have no acute adverse effects on cardiac function.
- 2009 University of Alberta Study – 95% of respondents in online survey reported that general health, ability to exercise, sense of smell and taste were better since using e-cigarettes.
Negative E-Cig Studies / Reports
- 2014 Roswell Park Cancer Institute Study - Solvent and battery voltage may affect levels of harmful compounds in e-cig vapor. High-voltage devices may expose users to more risk.
- 2014 JAMA Network Study – Found that e-cigarette users did not quit smoking more frequently than nonusers, but the study included all users, even those with no intention to quit.
- 2013 University of Athens Study – Claims that electronic cigarettes could ‘damage your lungs’ as they cause less oxygen to be absorbed by the blood. Limited research!
- 2012 Society of Research on Nicotine and Tobocco – E-cigarettes contain nicotine, but brands and models differ in their efficacy and consistency of nicotine vaporization.
- 2012 Chest Journal Study – Short term e-cig use was found to cause an increase in impedance, airway flow resistance, and oxidative stress, but long-term benefits may outweigh risks.
- 2009 Tobacco Control Study – Considered e-cigs ineffective for nicotine delivery and craving suppression since samples (from just two companies) had less nicotine than tobacco.
- 2009 FDA Study of E-Cig Cartridges – Although this study was ultimately proven inconclusive, it’s widely mentioned in many news stories. It evaluated samples from just two companies and found low levels of tobacco-specific carcinogens. It failed to disclose the actual amounts of carcinogens, which were later proved to be insignificant, far below that of tobacco cigarettes.
Other E-Cigarette Research
- 2013 CDC Report on Teen E-Cig Use – Showed a doubling of teen e-cigarette use from 2011 to 2012. It’s important to note that 75% of those teens currently smoked tobacco.
- 2013 CDC Report on Adult E-Cigarette Use – Among adult smokers, report showed a doubling of adults who had tried e-cigarettes from 2010 to 2011.