E-Cigarette Studies & Research
Although the original concept can be traced back to 1963, Hon Lik, a Chinese pharmacist, is widely credited with inventing the first electronic cigarette in 2003. Internationally patented in 2007, studies regarding the safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes are ongoing. Below, we have attempted to gather the most complete, unbiased and accurate e-cigarette research available:
Positive Electronic Cigarette Studies
Studies of Toxicity Levels:
- 2015 Science Direct Study – E-cigarette aerosol showed no acute cytotoxicity when compared with traditional cigarette smoke. Significantly less impact on organotypic tissue.
- 2015 IJERP Study – Overall exposure to metals is not expected to be of significant health concern for smokers who switch, but is an unnecessary source of exposure for non-smokers.
- 2015 Addiction Journal Study – E-cigs produce high levels of aldehyde only in dry puff conditions, causing a unpleasant taste that users detect and avoid. Under normal vaping conditions aldehyde emissions are minimal, even in new-generation high-power e-cigarettes.
- 2015 Regulatory Toxicology & Pharmacology Study – Found that tobacco smoke had 1,500 times more harmful constituents (HPHC) than e-cig vapor, which was equivalent to room air. The study was funded by Big Tobacco maker (and owner of Blu E-Cigs), Lorillard, but the results of the rigorous testing can’t be denied. Numerous studies have backed the findings.
- 2014 Environmental Science Study – With the exception Ni, Zn and Ag, e-cigarettes show a remarkable decrease in metals and organic compounds.
- 2014 IJERP Study – Findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects.
- 2013 Tobacco Control Study – Substituting tobacco cigarettes with e-cigarettes may substantially reduce exposure to selected tobacco-specific toxicants.
- 2013 Drexel University Study – Chemicals found in e-cigarette liquids pose no health concerns.
- 2013 ClearStream-LIFE Study – Study indicated that electronic cigarette vapor is significantly less cytotoxic than traditional cigarette / tobacco smoke.
- 2012 Indoor Air Study – Compared electronic cigarette vapor to tobacco smoke and found significantly less volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
- 2010 Journal of Public Health Study – Lab studies showed that carcinogen levels in e-cigarettes are much lower than traditional cigarettes.
Studies of Second-Hand Vapor:
- 2014 Drexel University Study – Found “no apparent concern” for bystanders exposed to e-cigarette vapor – even under “worst case” assumptions.
- 2013 Oxford University Press Study – Using an e-cig in indoor environments may expose nonusers to trace amounts of nicotine but not to toxic combustion products.
- 2012 CleanStream-Air Study – Evaluated the effect of second-hand vapor and found no detectable amounts of toxic substances or carcinogens.
- 2012 Inhalation Toxicology Study – Determined there was no apparent risk to human health from electronic cigarette vapor emissions.
Effectiveness for Smoking Cessation:
- 2014 IJERPH Study – E-cigs were shown to be highly effective in reducing cigarette craving and resulted in “remarkable reductions” in or complete abstinence from tobacco.
- 2014 Addiction Journal Study – Among smokers attempting to quit, those who used e-cigs were more likely to report abstinence than those using NRT or no aid.
- 2013 Addictive Behaviors Study – E-cigarettes may contribute to relapse prevention in former smokers and smoking cessation in current smokers.
- 2013 Lancent Medical Journal Study – Determined that e-cigarettes were modestly effective at helping smokers to quit, equivalent to nicotine patches.
- 2013 PLoS ONE Study – E-cigarettes decreased cigarette consumption and elicited enduring tobacco abstinence without causing significant side effects.
- 2012 Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco – E-cigs deliver similar levels of nicotine and reduce exposure to combustion toxicants after switching from tobacco.
- 2011 Boston University Study – Electronic cigarette use significantly reduced tobacco cravings, a similar effect to what has been observed with nicotine inhalers.
- 2011 BioMed Central Public Health Study – Concluded that smokers substantially decreased their cigarette consumption (without significant side effects) with e-cigs.
- 2010 Tobacco Control Study – Found that e-cigarettes alleviated users desire to smoke and had a ‘pharmacokinetic profile’ more like the Nicorette inhalator than tobacco.
Other E-Cigarette Health Studies:
- 2014 Penn State Study – E-cig users were found to be less dependent on e-cigarettes than they were on traditional cigarettes and reported less withdrawal symptoms and craving.
- 2014 BMC Cardiovascular Disorders Study – Found that electronic cigarette use has no immediate effects on the cardiovascular system or acute heart function.
- 2014 IJERP Health Survey – Survey of over 19,000 e-cigarette users found that nearly 75% reported better general health after switching to e-cigs, along with a wide range of other perceived health benefits, such as improve endurance, breathing, taste, smell, etc.
- 2013 Inhalation Toxicology Study – While lung function was impaired by traditional cigarettes, e-cigs appeared to have no impact and delivered similar levels of nicotine.
- 2012 Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center Study – Based on current available data, electronic cigarettes appear to have no acute adverse effects on cardiac function.
- 2009 University of Alberta Study – 95% of respondents in online survey reported that general health, ability to exercise, sense of smell and taste were better since using e-cigarettes.
Negative E-Cig Studies / Reports
- 2015 PLoS ONE Study – Electronic cigarettes aerosols can modulate levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in the lungs and lung cells of mice. Compared to smoking, though, another study shows that the oxidative stress is 4.5–5 times lower than smoking tobacco.
- 2014 PLoS ONE Study – Suggests that e-liquid promotes pro-inflammatory response and HRV infection of the lungs. In other words, you’re more likely to get a cold. It’s important to note that they didn’t compare tobacco, and e-liquid was applied directly to lung cells – not inhaled.
- 2014 Journal of Environmental Science Study – Despite a decrease in the majority of toxic chemicals, e-cigarette vapor was found to contain chromium, absent from traditional cigarettes, as well as nickel at levels four times higher than normal cigarettes. This was highlighted by the media, even though the study ultimately concluded that e-cigarettes are significantly less harmful than tobacco cigarettes and are likely to pose no risk to bystanders.
- 2014 Roswell Park Cancer Institute Study – Solvent and battery voltage may affect levels of harmful compounds in e-cig vapor. High-voltage devices may expose users to more risk.
- 2014 JAMA Network Study – Found that e-cigarette users did not quit smoking more frequently than nonusers, but the study included all users, even those with no intention to quit.
- 2013 University of Athens Study – Claims that electronic cigarettes could ‘damage your lungs’ as they cause less oxygen to be absorbed by the blood. Limited research!
- 2012 Society of Research on Nicotine and Tobocco – E-cigarettes contain nicotine, but brands and models differ in their efficacy and consistency of nicotine vaporization.
- 2012 Chest Journal Study – Short term e-cig use was found to cause an increase in impedance, airway flow resistance, and oxidative stress, but long-term benefits may outweigh risks.
- 2009 Tobacco Control Study – Considered e-cigs ineffective for nicotine delivery and craving suppression since samples (from just two companies) had less nicotine than tobacco.
- 2009 FDA Study of E-Cig Cartridges – Although this study was ultimately proven inconclusive, it’s widely mentioned in many news stories. It evaluated samples from just two companies and found low levels of tobacco-specific carcinogens. It failed to disclose the actual amounts of carcinogens, which were later proved to be insignificant, far below that of tobacco cigarettes.
Other E-Cigarette Research
- 2014 AJPM Gateway Study – Electronic cigarettes are increasingly popular with youth; however, they do not appear to lead to traditional tobacco use.
- 2013 CDC Report on Teen E-Cig Use – Showed a doubling of teen e-cigarette use from 2011 to 2012. It’s important to note that 75% of those teens currently smoked tobacco.
- 2013 CDC Report on Adult E-Cigarette Use – Among adult smokers, report showed a doubling of adults who had tried e-cigarettes from 2010 to 2011.